Statistics from the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences showed that in 2015 China was home to 4.29 million people who were diagnosed with cancer and 2.81 million fatalities. The number of cancer patients is expected to increase steadily in the upcoming years thanks to the growing and graying population. The number is pessimistic and to make matters worse, most cancer cases could be prevented. It is crucially important for the Chinese public to lead a healthy life, including quitting smoking, having a balanced diet and doing more exercise. In China, behavioral research on the prevention of chronic diseases including cancer has only just started in recent years and lags far behind that of infectious diseases including sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. Official studies also show that the difficulties of cancer prevention lie in China’s vast rural areas where public health services are inadequate.